Technological Paradox of Hackers Begetting Hackers: A Case of Ethical and Unethical Hackers and their Subtle Tools

Main Article Content

Raphael Banda
Jackson Phiri
Mayumbo Nyirenda
Monica M. Kabemba


Computer crimes have been in existence for a long time now and hacking is just another way or tool that hackers are now using to perpetrate crime in different form. Hackers Beget Ethical Hackers. A number of people have suffered the consequences of hacker actions. We need to know who these hackers are. We need to know why these hackers exist because hackers have been there and will be there and we can be victims of their existence. In essence hackers seem to beget hackers and the tools that they use are getting more and more advanced by the day. We shall take a quick analysis of selected tools from thousands of tools used by ethical and unethical hackers.
We shall systematically review three major types of hackers that we can identify. It is not easy to draw a line between them. Three main hackers and minor hackers have been discussed in this paper. The three main hackers are black hat, grey hat and white hat hackers.
We have adopted a systematic review of literature to discuss and analyse some of the common tools the black hat hackers have developed to hack into selected systems and commercial software and why they do it?

Article Details

Author Biographies

Raphael Banda, University of Zambia

Department of Computer Science

Jackson Phiri, University of Zambia

Department of Computer Science

Mayumbo Nyirenda, University of Zambia

Department of Computer Science

Monica M. Kabemba, University of Zambia

Department of Computer Science